While some anatomists injected corpses with wax to address the shortage of human cadavers, others pursued less gruesome solutions: papier-mâché.
French physician Louis Thomas Jerôme Auzoux is the man who popularized papier-mâché anatomical models in the 1800s. In 1822 – the same year he earned his medical degree – he presented his first head-to-foot papier-mâché male model to the Paris Academy of Medicine.
Five years after presenting his first model, he opened a factory to mass-produce his anatomical figures for hospitals, universities, and scientists. This papier-mâché brain was made in France, but it’s unknown if it originated from Auzoux’s factory.