Triumphs of AI in the Game World
1770 Wolfgang von Kempelen creates the first chess-playing machine.
1948 Alan Turing writes the first chess-playing program using a pencil and paper. Lacking an actual computer, he can only testing by acting like the computer himself.
1952 Christopher Strachey writes the first checkers program in London.
1952 Maurice Wilkes and a team of Cambridge scientists program EDSAC to play tic-tac-toe.
1956 Arthur Samuel of IBM writes the first checkers program that could “learn”.
1962 MIT scientist Alan Kotok creates a program that can beat amateurs at chess.
1963 Arthur Samuel’s checkers program wins a single match against Robert Nealey, a checkers master from Connecticut.
1966 MIT’s MacHack VI, developed by Richard Greenblatt, becomes the first computer to play in a human-oriented chess tournament.
1970 Albert Zorist writes the first program to play go at the Universityof Wisconsin-Madison.
1977 Northwestern University’s CHESS 4.6, written by Larry Atkin and David Slate becomes the first computer to beat a Class A human player.
1978 A team of MIT students builds a computer out of Tinker Toys that plays tic-tac-toe.
1979 BKG9.8, created by Hans Berlinger of Carnegie Mellon University, beats backgammon world champion Luigi Villa (though backgammon enthusiasts insist that it just got lucky).
1984 Mike Caro, a professional poker player, writes a poker program called Orac. According to its poker buddies it won more games than it lost, but this was never documented.
1988 HiTech, created by Murray Campbell, Carl Ebeling, and Gordon Goetsch from Carnegie Mellon, wins the Pennsylvania State Chess Championship and is the first computer to be rated Grandmaster.
1989 Jonathan Schaeffer, of the University of Alberta, creates Chinook.
1992 Chinook fails to defeat checkers champ Marion Tinsley.
1994 Chinook wins world championship. It’s the first computer program to win a world championship for humans in any game.
1997 Deep Blue beats chess world champion Garry Kasparov.
1997 Logistello, programmed by Michael Buro of the University of Alberta, beats Othello world champion Takeshi Murakami.
1998 Maven, programmed by Brian Sheppard, beats the two-man team of world champion Joel Sherman and runner-up Matt Graham at Scrabble.
1999 Duke scientist Michael Littman creates Proverb, which can solve 90% of the New York Times crossword puzzle accurately (95% during the week, 85% on the weekends).
2002 John Romein and Henri Balof the Free University in Amsterdam solve awari.
2003 Milan Stojanovic of Columbia University and Darko Stefanovic of the University of New Mexico announce their creation of MAYA a DNA computer that plays tic-tac-toe
2006 MAYA becomes unbeatable at tic-tac-toe.
2007 Quackle, invented by Eyal Amir and Mark Richards at the University of Illinois, becomes the first computer to win a Scrabble tournament.