The first big break came in 1992, when the Supernova Cosmology Project bagged its first distant Type Ia supernova using a new CCD detector on the two-meter (6 ½ foot) Isaac Newton Telescope at the La Palma Observatory in the Canary Islands. Over the next two years, Perlmutter recorded a succession of supernovas, proving that systematic searches were possible. Then a new uncertainty stripped the bloom off astronomers’ rosy optimism. Preliminary surveys of relatively nearby supernovas in the late 1980s and early 1990s showed that Type Ia supernovas are not identical after all. Some brighten and fade faster than others; some are inherently more luminous. Slowly, a team led by Mark Phillips at the Carnegie Institution of Washington’s Las Campanas Observatory in Chile uncovered a meaningful pattern within the chaos. Sluggish supernovas are consistently brighter at their peaks than fleeting ones. The correlation is so tight that the steepness of a supernova’s light curve—a plot of its changing brightness over time—accurately predicts its intrinsic brilliance.
‘One of the big philosophical questions is, are we in some favored position of space or time? We happen to be alive when the energy density and matter density of the universe are close to each other. Is there something funny going on here?’
Adam Riess of the Space Telescope Science Institute, one of Kirshner’s disciples, devised a statistical technique to extract that measurement. A little later, Perlmutter came up with his own, more geometric solution: Expand the light curves to correct for the supernovas’ differences. “I drew light curves stretched in time, and they were amazingly close,” he says. “They all fell on top of each other. It was clear there was some physics making that happen.” Both teams eventually claimed they could calculate intrinsic luminosity to within about 10 percent, an astonishing level of accuracy.
Still, not everyone agreed on how to interpret the results. From time to time, Perlmutter contacted other members of the tiny supernova community to answer a question or help interpret an observation. One of those who lent a hand was Brian Schmidt, a soft-spoken 25-year-old Harvard graduate student. Under Kirshner’s guidance, Schmidt had started out studying the mechanics of how supernovas detonate. “I liked them as physical objects,” he recalls. He also knew that exploding stars could illuminate the greatest mysteries of cosmology—but they could just as easily fool anyone who failed to apprehend their tremendous complexity. Schmidt and a few of his Harvard colleagues followed the progress of Perlmutter’s team, both at conferences and in person, and started to feel uneasy. “We were not terribly happy with the way they were analyzing the data at the time,” he says.
‘It is hard for me to imagine a future where most of the universe will be accelerated beyond our ability to see it. If you come back in 150 billion years, our galaxy and Andromeda are the only things you see. I find it very disturbing because it is so bleak.’
Schmidt conferred with Kirshner and suggested that they launch their own, independent supernova search. Kirshner was skeptical. People had found supernovas before, only to realize that they could not squeeze useful cosmological information from them. “Yes, we could do it better,” Kirshner said. “But could we do it?” Schmidt convinced him that they could. In 1994, together with a number of the other supernova experts in their circle, they formed the competing High-Z Supernova Search. (Z is the term astronomers use to denote how the light of distant objects is stretched by the expansion of the universe.)
Perlmutter had a huge lead in software development. Schmidt, for his part, had a group of colleagues intimately familiar with supernovas and the knowledge that the project seemed at least technically feasible. Drawing on his expertise with astronomical computation, Schmidt sat down and hammered away at the same programming problems that had bedeviled Perlmutter. “Saul’s group worked for six years on software,” Kirshner says, sounding like a proud father. “Brian said, ‘I could do that in a month.’ And he did.” The two groups were off and running.
The cosmic future is quite likely to be a lonely, cold
one in which galaxies race away from each other at
ever-increasing velocities into the void
Actually, it was more like they were chasing each other through knee-deep molasses. Hunting supernovas calls for a singular mix of frantic activity and limitless patience. It begins in a frenzy of administrative activity, securing time on a large telescope just after a new moon, when the sky is dark, and three weeks later when moonlight again is not a problem. Both teams booked time on the 4-meter (13-foot) telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, whose huge CCD detector could capture the light of 5,000 galaxies in 10 minutes. Once the researchers secured two images of the same area, they had to make sure the views were properly aligned. Then they had to account for changes in atmospheric clarity and eliminate the many flickering objects that were not supernovas. All told, they might look at more than a hundred thousand galaxies in one season.
If a blip of light looked promising, another round of work began. The scientists made a pilgrimage to the huge Keck Observatory atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Each of the twin Keck telescopes has 36 aluminized glass-ceramic hexagons that form a 33-foot-wide Cyclops eye, able to gather enough light from a suspected supernova to spread the beam into a spectrum. Once Perlmutter and Schmidt identified the telltale sign of a Type Ia, the real frenzy began. To get an accurate read, the scientists had to track each supernova for 40 to 60 days at observatories around the world. After that came data processing to correct for intergalactic dust and other possible sources of error. Final analysis could take a year or more, until the supernova had faded from view, when it was possible to get a clean view of the galaxy where it lived and died. All the while, each team felt the other breathing down its neck.
For Schmidt, terrestrial distances became nearly as vexing as celestial ones. In 1995 he took a position at Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories near Canberra, Australia—now called the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics—and ended up on the other side of the world from his colleagues. “I had just had a child, I had just written software that had never been used before, and I was attempting to look for supernovas and debug the software across 13 time zones between Chile and Australia,” he says. “It was nearly a disaster.” Thankfully, Schmidt soon found his first cosmologically significant supernova, proving that his efforts were not in vain.
Cosmologists investigate the history of the universe by looking at two aspects of supernovas, brightness and redshift, that relate in a very complicated but meaningful way. The brightness reveals how far the star’s light has traveled; the redshift shows how much it has been stretched by the expansion of the universe. Most scientists assumed that the expansion of the universe had been slowing ever since the Big Bang, as the gravitational attraction of 100 billion galaxies tried to pull the whole works back together. In that case, faraway supernovas (which we see as they were billions of years ago, when the growth was more rapid) would have accumulated redshift more quickly relative to their distance than nearby ones. Put another way, those distant objects would be nearer, and therefore brighter, than you would naively expect if you simply extrapolated back from the way the universe is expanding closer to home. The amount of additional brightness relative to the redshift tells you the rate of deceleration and hence the overall density of the universe.
The first supernova that Schmidt’s group fully investigated was actually a bit dimmer than expected, but the High-Z team needed more data to understand the meaning of that single odd result. Perlmutter, meanwhile, slogged through observations of 23 distant supernovas and analyzed seven of them by the end of 1996. The stars lay roughly 4 billion to 7 billion light-years from Earth, or as much as halfway to the visible edge of the cosmos. At first, the Supernova Cosmology Project members believed they saw what cosmologists had long expected. The light of the supernovas was a little brighter than it would have been if they were hurtling away at today’s speed; the expansion of the universe must have been faster in the past.
But as Perlmutter worked through more observations, the picture improbably reversed. One after another, the supernovas seemed to grow fainter and fainter relative to their redshifts. As the brightnesses dropped, so did the implied density of the universe. Eventually, the density fell into the minus zone, implying that the universe contains less than nothing. “I guess we’re not here,” Perlmutter joked nervously.